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Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament

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Christianity Today 2008 Book Award Winner
2008 Best Academic Book of the Year, Association of Theological Booksellers

"For years to come [this work] will be an indispensable reference for scholars working on the relationship of the two testaments, a central matter for biblical studies."--Luis Sanchez-Navarro, Catholic Biblical Quarterly
Readers of the New Testament often encounter quotes or allusions to the Old Testament that may be unfamiliar or obscure. In this volume, G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson have brought together a distinguished team of scholars to isolate, catalog, and comment on both the obvious Old Testament quotations and the more subtle allusions found in the New Testament. The result is a comprehensive commentary on the Old Testament references that appear from Matthew through Revelation. It is a vital resource for the reference library of every student of the New Testament.


Craig L. Blomberg (Denver Seminary) on Matthew

Rikk E. Watts (Regent College) on Mark

David W. Pao (Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) and Eckhard J. Schnabel (Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) on Luke

Andreas J. Kostenberger (Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary) on John

I. Howard Marshall (University of Aberdeen) on Acts

Mark A. Seifrid (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) on Romans

Roy E. Ciampa (Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary) and Brian S. Rosner (Moore Theological College) on 1 Corinthians

Peter Balla (Karoli Gaspar Reformed University, Budapest) on 2 Corinthians

Moises Silva (author of Philippians in the Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) on Galatians and Philippians

Frank S. Thielman (Beeson Divinity School) on Ephesians

G. K. Beale (Wheaton College Graduate School) on Colossians

Jeffrey A. D. Weima (Calvin Theological Seminary) on 1 and 2 Thessalonians

Philip H. Towner (United Bible Societies) on 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus

George H. Guthrie (Union University) on Hebrews

D. A. Carson (Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) on the General Epistles

G. K. Beale (Wheaton College Graduate School) and Sean M. McDonough (Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary) on Revelation




"Every scholar would profit by having a copy of this thorough and judicious work on his or her desk. The authors have collected for us an immense amount of material and insight in a relatively short space, and many of us will be grateful for their efforts. This commentary is a profound witness to the unity of the Testaments in the mystery of Christ."--Francis Martin, Dominican House of Studies (emeritus)

"Finally we have a work that examines the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament and covers the entirety of the New Testament in a single volume. Pastors, students, and scholars will profit from the careful attention to both the Old and New Testament contexts in which the citations occur, and they will be enriched by the theological depth represented in this important book."--Thomas R. Schreiner, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

"Finally a volume that surveys the use of the Old Testament in each book of the New Testament. Written by top-tier scholars with unsurpassed expertise in New Testament exegesis, these essays model sound engagement with Scripture that quotes Scripture. This excellent collection is a must-read for all who wish to understand how the New Testament writers understood and used their Bible. This long-awaited volume deserves to become a standard text that will hopefully launch a new stage of fresh work in biblical research."--Karen H. Jobes, Wheaton College (emerita)

"Beale and Carson have given us a volume that will certainly become a standard for all serious Bible readers, ministers, and scholars. We are in their debt. As a preacher, I would especially encourage other preachers to use this volume in honing their understanding of God's Word and in leading their congregations to better understand the Old Testament, the same Scriptures that Jesus taught his disciples. I'm even planning on using this to help select appropriate Scripture readings for public services."--Mark Dever, pastor, Capitol Hill Baptist Church, Washington, DC

"This really is a new sort of commentary! For the first time we are given a continuous exegetical reading of the way each New Testament book quotes, alludes to, and evokes the Old Testament Scriptures. This volume will be an immensely useful resource for all kinds of study of the New Testament."--Richard Bauckham, St. Mary's College, University of St. Andrews (emeritus)

"Few areas of New Testament study are as often discussed as the New Testament's use of the Old. There has long been a need for a careful case-by-case treatment, since the use we see in the New Testament is so varied and diverse. This commentary meets that need admirably. It is thorough yet concise, clear yet detailed. All will be led into helpful reflection on this important area of study. Well done to the editors and authors of this useful and unique commentary."--Darrell L. Bock, Dallas Theological Seminary

"More than a generation ago, C. H. Dodd and a few other scholars began sowing the seeds of a new and fruitful approach to reading Scripture, by studying the New Testament writers' use of Old Testament texts. The present commentary thus represents the harvest of decades of research into the relationship between the Old and New Testaments. By carefully observing various factors, ranging from the textual to the theological, each contributor shows how the New Testament writers were not only careful readers of the Old Testament but also profound theologians themselves. The scholars on this superb team assembled by Beale and Carson distill many new and remarkable insights for exegesis and theology, all of which serve to demonstrate the explanatory power of this approach for the present and the future. This landmark volume should prove to be an invaluable resource for both the church and the academy--for pastors, teachers, and students alike, whether Protestant or Catholic--and for anyone wanting to go deeper into the heart of sacred Scripture. Indeed, Beale and Carson are to be thanked and congratulated for a momentous accomplishment."--Scott Hahn, Franciscan University of Steubenville

"There has been a great need for a comprehensive study of the New Testament's use of the Old Testament. This arduous task has now been accomplished by very competent New Testament scholars, resulting in an excellent reference work. It is well thought out and the style makes it easy to use; a must for every serious student of the Bible."--Harold W. Hoehner, Dallas Theological Seminary

"Given the infinite riches of God's truth, no single commentary can do it all. Some commentaries choose to stress the theological themes of a text, while others focus on a text's literary features or significant archaeological background or the wider cultural context of first-century Judaism and Hellenism. While all this is valuable, no background information has proved to be more illuminating than the New Testament's own profound use of the Old Testament. This crucial background, however, is often tragically missed, misconstrued, or minimized in other commentaries. To address this need, the present volume provides a fresh, insightful, and judicious exposition of the most significant instances of the New Testament's use of the Old Testament. Under the expert editorial guidance of G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson, who are among the most respected authorities in the field, the contributors to this commentary have done scholars, pastors, and ordinary believers an enormous favor by sharing with them in a concise and accessible format some of the most useful and exciting discoveries that come from this approach."--Gordon P. Hugenberger, senior minister, Park Street Church, Boston, MA; Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary

"Beale and Carson have amassed a unique reference resource, focused on an area of perpetual importance to both biblical scholars and preachers: how did the writers of the New Testament 'read' their Bibles. The many contributions are held together by a commitment to explore the New Testament context of the quotation, the meaning of the excerpt in its original Old Testament context, the interpretation of this same passage in Second Temple Judaism, the textual tradition (Hebrew text, Septuagint, or mixed type) of the passage, and, finally, the New Testament writer's interpretation and application of the excerpt. As such, this volume will be of constant help as a starting point for a very specific, and very critical, facet of the exegetical task."--David A. deSilva, Ashland Theological Seminary

The Authors

  1. G. K. Beale

    G. K. Beale

    G. K. Beale (PhD, University of Cambridge) is professor of New Testament and biblical theology at Reformed Theological Seminary in Dallas, Texas. He has served as president and as a member of the executive committee of the Evangelical Theological Society....

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  2. D. A. Carson

    D. A. Carson

    D. A. Carson (PhD, University of Cambridge) is emeritus professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, and is the author or editor of more than fifty books, including The God Who Is There, Commentary on the...

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Christianity Today 2008 Book Award Winner
2008 Best Academic Book of the Year, Association of Theological Booksellers

"A most helpful and innovative commentary."--R. Albert Mohler Jr., Preaching

"This is a commentary like no other on the New Testament, for it has as its special focus the use made by New Testament authors of Old Testament texts. . . . The contributors are all highly qualified evangelical scholars. . . . An index at the back of the volume efficiently leads the reader to discussions of any Old Testament or New Testament passage of particular interest. This book is sure to lead those who use it to a new appreciation of the unity of the Bible, the theological insight of the New Testament authors, and the propriety of their use of Old Testament texts and themes."--Gregory Goswell, New Life

"Although this commentary was clearly written from an evangelical perspective, that does not detract from the level of scholarship in the individual studies. They are generally well informed on the secondary literature and are perceptive on the issues involved. . . . The work is well done and should prove to be a valuable resource for students and scholars alike. . . . Recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers."--J. R. Asher, Choice

"A very significant volume in helping expositors not only interpret NT quotations from the OT but how the two testaments of the Bible hold together, i.e. how we understand the unified message of the Bible."--Ray Van Neste, Preaching

"This single volume provides a useful resource for tracking down references and allusions to the OT in the NT. . . . It is a valuable intertextual primer and guide. . . . It should find a welcome home on the reference shelf of many biblical scholars."--Mark Glen Bilby, Religious Studies Review

"G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson have assembled a superb team of Protestant exegetes to produce this unique commentary that sets itself to the task of analyzing every Old Testament citation and probable allusion in each book of the New Testament. In addition, contributors have provided extensive bibliographies, making this an excellent reference guide to the best of current New Testament scholarship. . . . The results of [the book's] format and method are often intensely close readings that yield new insights on the texts. . . . This landmark commentary promises to bring to pastors, scholars, and ordinary believers the fruits of more than a generation of intertextual scholarship."--Letter & Spirit

"Up to now there has not been a work such as this one. . . . [Readers] will have at their disposal 'a reasonably comprehensive survey of all the textual evidence' carried out by a number of renowned scholars. They will also find an exhaustive bibliography at the end of each chapter. . . . This work, of the highest caliber, . . . for years to come will be an indispensable reference for scholars working on the relationship of the two Testaments, a central matter for biblical studies."--Luis Sánchez-Navarro, Catholic Biblical Quarterly

"A useful reference book that also contains comprehensive bibliographies and indices that will help you prepare well for Old Testament and New Testament preaching and teaching. . . . This commentary was a decade in the making, but it was well worth the effort, and it will repay the investment for anyone who preaches or teaches regularly. . . . The next New Testament series I am preaching is on 1 John. I am keeping this volume on my desk all the way through the preparation period, and I strongly recommend this practice to others."--Nigel Fortescue, The Briefing

"It is not often that a reference work of a completely unique sort is published, but this is precisely what we have in this volume. . . . This unique commentary certainly will prove valuable for advanced theological students and pastors, but also for scholars working in the burgeoning field of the use of Scripture in Jewish texts and by the authors of the NT."--Timothy G. Gombis, Bulletin for Biblical Research

"This volume is a remarkable achievement. . . . Rather than making all OT texts predictive, the contributors rightly give pride of place to how the NT authors are exegetes and homilists, expounding their understanding of Jesus, his death and resurrection, and their own experiences as in some way consistent with their authoritative scriptures. No work like this can be exhaustive, but the selection of topics for discussion is generally judicious. Throughout there is also plenty of reference to Jewish exegesis contemporary with the NT authors. . . . There are good bibliographies and comprehensive indexes. I will be returning to this volume frequently. Highly recommended."--G. J. Brooke, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

"Each contribution will not replace a standard commentary on the particular NT text, but the authors have had the luxury of focusing on the OT usage in more detail than is usually offered. The book therefore offers a very rich addition to what is available in NT commentaries. It is clearly presented, detailed, and yet concise. This is a comprehensive and fine collection of scholarship in one volume which will appeal to biblical scholars, students, and interested Christians."--Gary W. Burnett, Journal for the Study of the New Testament

"This much-anticipated work fills an important niche in the study of the Scriptures. . . . This distinctive volume provides extensive text-by-text commentary on OT citations, allusions, and references in the NT. It supplements commentaries on the various NT writings by providing greater detail on the NT use of the OT and furnishes the raw data for broader analyses of the way the various NT authors use the OT. . . . The editors, both eminent scholars, have assembled an impressive team of evangelical contributors with extensive background in the NT use of the OT and/or in the biblical books on which they have written. . . . The bibliographies for each NT book offer valuable starting points for students and scholars. . . . While this is a rigorous scholarly work, it does not demand too much from those pastors and students who are willing to take the time to mine its riches. . . . Students and scholars will find the commentary an invaluable basis for further study of the way(s) in which each NT author uses the OT and in which each OT text is used by various NT authors."--James A. Meek, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

"Getting into the sources of the first-century AD can be difficult. G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson's Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament is a good starting point. Beale and Carson provide lists of potential non-biblical sources the New Testament writers may have utilized."--Chelica Hiltunen, Bible Study Magazine

"For this groundbreaking commentary, editors G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson--both influential Evangelical NT commentators in their own right . . . --assembled an impressive array of well-known and emerging Evangelical scholars. . . . All the pieces engage much of the latest critical scholarship, attend to literary parallels from Second Temple Judaisms, and are authored by men who have published monographs or studies on their assigned or similar document(s). . . . It is a required purchase for college and seminary libraries and should be on every preacher's and scholar's shelf of frequently consulted books."--Brandon L. Fredenburg, Stone-Campbell Journal

"This is a biblical commentary limiting itself to how the writers of New Testament books used the Old Testament, but it goes far beyond identifying citations. The contributors probe the minds of the New Testament authors to determine why they chose certain Old Testament passages, what they saw in them, and how they were used. . . . At first this commentary might find a place alongside of traditionally organized ones. It might soon take first place."--David P. Scaer, Concordia Theological Quarterly

"Written by NT scholars on the OT quotations and allusions found in NT books, this volume has a fairly high level of sophistication. This commentary is worth having for the bibliographies alone."--Bruce Riley Ashford & Grant Taylor, Between the Times blog

"A massive and important work. . . . This book is one of the most detailed and serious discussions of the New Testament (NT) use of the Old Testament (OT) ever compiled. . . . The book's greatest strength [is its] detailed analysis of all explicit quotations and allusions to the OT in the NT. . . . The scholarship is very good across the board. . . . The book will be especially helpful for pastors and students who come across many quotations of the OT as they study the NT books."--Michael J. Vlach, Master's Seminary Journal