Introducing the New Testament

A Historical, Literary, and Theological Survey

Cover Art

Discussion Prompts

  1. How do scholars proceed with reconstructing the conversational exchange between Paul and the churches in Corinth? What is the role of Chloe’s people? How do letters play a part? How do we know (what is the evidence for these letters and their exchange)?
  2. Paul offers a number of solutions to various problems the Corinthians are experiencing. What are the problems and what solutions does Paul offer? What ethical principles guide Paul’s solutions (love, humility, putting others first)? Do these principles translate to the modern day? Can you think of situations in our world that might benefit from Paul’s ethical principles here?
  3. First Corinthians 13 is often read at weddings and the “love” Paul talks about is applied to the newlyweds. Why is this application of the passage a misreading of Paul’s letter to the Corinthians? What is your evidence?
  4. After reading 1 Corinthians through, and after discussing the specific problems and issues Paul addresses, what are the central themes in this letter? What do these themes have to do with Christ?

Pedagogical Suggestions

The Situations in Corinth

1. Divide the class into three groups (5–10 students). Have each group address one of the following prompts by acting out the scenario that Paul has heard of and is addressing.

Group A: Read 1 Corinthians 11 and review text pp. 283–84. Sketch the problems Paul addresses in this passage. Now, prepare to act out the scenario Paul imagines is going on in the Corinthian Christian communities. Give each person a role, for example, narrator, church members, etc. How is this scene divisive? How might chapter 13 offer solutions to these divisions?

Group B: Read 1 Corinthians 5–7 (focusing on 5:1–13) and review text p. 284. Pay close attention to the attitudes of all of the people involved (not just the man singled out). What does Paul have against the whole community at Corinth? Why? What attitudes do the different factions within the Corinthian church have toward the man and his lover? What is the purpose of excommunication? Now prepare to act out the distinct Corinthian perspectives involved and Paul’s accusation of the man. You may even act out the scenario Paul commands the Corinthians to enact.

Group C: Read 1 Corinthians 8–10 and review text pp. 286–88. Outline the various views of eating food that has been sacrificed to idols. Where are people buying or eating this food? Who has access to this food? Why is there a conflict in the community? How does Paul address the conflict? What is the ethical principle that he holds up to the Corinthians? Now, try to act out the situation in Corinth for the class. Be sure to present the diverse viewpoints among Corinthian believers as well as Paul’s own suggestions.

Rationale

The aim of this exercise is to help students imagine and re-create the ancient social situations that Paul describes. Students see that Paul’s letters address down-to-earth, real human problems: sexual relations, arrogance, shame, competition, who can eat what with whom, how we treat one another, basic issues of respect, spats that escalate into lawsuits, how to regulate community finances, etc. Paul’s theology in the Corinthian correspondence takes an ethical, material, and embodied form; it is not an academic exercise, nor heady, systematic theology. Here students experience Paul as a pastor-theologian. They can also identify the key ethical principles that Paul applies to each of the (very different) situational problems in Corinth.

Our Letters to Urban America

2. After a discussion of the problems Paul addresses in Corinth and the ethical principles Paul offers to address these problems, have students write a letter to a parallel modern urban community, for example, a short “letter to Miami” or a “letter to Los Angeles” that takes one problem Paul addressed in 1 Corinthians and creates a contemporary parallel problem, applying the same ethical principles as Paul. Students could also take the metaphor of the body (1 Cor. 12:12–27) and use this metaphor to address a contemporary problem on their campus.
After writing their letters, have students read them to one another in small groups. Lead students in a reflection on how this exercise helped them to understand Paul, the churches in Corinth, and first-century Christianity. How did students translate the ancient scenarios into contemporary ones? What are the issues (e.g., boasting [or status], excommunication, excess, or division) of today?

Rationale

This exercise seems to focus on contemporary situations. However, it requires students to have assimilated the ethical solutions Paul applies to the problems in Corinth and to translate and apply these to contemporary situations. There may not be exact parallels. Still, students can engage the material in a different and creative way, thereby extending their ability to analyze and understand this first-century writing.